Saturday, February 28, 2009

Freehold (English law)

In English law a freehold (also called frank-tenement and franktenement) refers to the ownership of real property, being the land and all immovable structures attached to such land. This is opposed to a leasehold in which the property reverts back to the owner of the land after the lease period has expired.[1] Immovable property includes land and all that naturally goes with it, such as buildings, trees, or underground resources, but not such things as vehicles or livestock (which are movable).

For an estate to be a freehold it must possess two qualities: Immobility (property must be land or some interest issuing out of or annexed to land); and ownership of it must be of an indeterminate duration. If the time of ownership can be fixed and determined, then it cannot be a freehold.[2]


[edit] Additional explanations

A substantial freehold means a "large" holding. In medieval times, this came to mean a holding worth at least 40s Scots.

[edit] See also

[edit] Sources and References

  1. ^ Chris Roberts, Heavy Words Lightly Thrown: The Reason Behind Rhyme, Thorndike Press,2006 (ISBN 0-7862-8517-6)

  2. ^

  3. ^ Shumaker, Walter A.; George Foster Longsdorf (1922). The Cyclopedic Law Dictionary (Second Edition by James C. Cahill ed.). Chicago: Callaghan and Company. 

Friday, February 27, 2009

Valdotanian regional election, 1968

Aosta Valley

This article is part of the series:

Politics and government of

Aosta Valley

Other countries · Atlas

 Politics portal

The Valdotanian regional election of 1968 took place on 21 April 1968.

[edit] Results

Parties      votesvotes (%)seats
Christian Democracy25,46737.813
Italian Communist Party13,74220.47
Valdotanian Union11,23716.76
Unified Socialist Party6,95410.34
Italian Liberal Party3,7655.62
Valdotanian Rally3,6275.42
Italian Socialist Party of Proletarian Unity1,5602.31
Italian Social Movement5330.8-
Italian Republican Party5250.8-

Sources: Regional Council of Aosta Valley and Istituto Cattaneo

No Muss...No Fuss

No Muss...No Fuss
No Muss...No Fuss cover
Studio album by Donnie Iris
Recorded1984 at Beachwood Studios in Beachwood, OH
ProducerMark Avsec
Professional reviews

Donnie Iris chronology

Fortune 410

No Muss...No Fuss

Out of the Blue


No Muss...No Fuss is the fifth solo album by American rock singer Donnie Iris, released in 1985 (see 1985 in music).[1]


[edit] Track listing

  1. "Injured in the Game of Love" (Avsec, Iris) – 3:26

  2. "10th Street" (Avsec, Iris) – 3:42

  3. "Ridin' Thunder" (Avsec, Iris) – 3:58

  4. "You're My Serenity" (Avsec, Iris) – 3:38

  5. "L.O.V.E." (Avsec, Iris) – 3:13

  6. "Follow That Car" (Avsec, Iris) – 3:54

  7. "Don't Cry Baby" (Jones) – 3:25

  8. "State of the Heart" (Avsec, Iris) – 3:57

  9. "Headed for a Breakdown" (Avsec, Iris) – 3:22

  10. "I Want You Back" (Avsec, Iris) – 3:34

[edit] Personnel

[edit] Production

  • Executive Producer & Engineer: Carl Maduri

  • Producer: Mark Avsec

[edit] Chart positions

Album - Billboard (North America)

1985The Billboard 200115

Singles - Billboard (North America)

1985"Injured in the Game of Love"Billboard Hot 10091
1985"Injured in the Game of Love"Mainstream Rock28

[edit] References

Thursday, February 26, 2009

The Medical Journal of Australia

The Medical Journal of Australia  
Abbreviated titleMed J Aust
DisciplinePeer-reviewed Medical journal
Publication details
PublisherAustralasian Medical Publishing Company (Australia)
Publication historyFounded 1914

The Medical Journal of Australia is a peer-reviewed medical journal. It is the official journal of the Australian Medical Association, published by the Australasian Medical Publishing Company Proprietary Limited (AMPCo). The present editor-in-chief is Martin Van Der Weyden.

The journal publishes editorials, original articles, case reports, and letters. The full text of every issue since January 2002 is available on their internet site.[1]

[edit] See also

[edit] Footnotes

  1. ^ "Information about the Medical journal of Australia". Australasian Medical Publishing Company. Retrieved on 2008-01-08. 

[edit] External links

Battle of Hill Eerie

Battle of Hill Eerie
Part of Korean War

LocationHill Eerie
ResultUS-Philippine Victory

Flag of the United States United States

Flag of the Philippines Philippines
 People's Republic of China
Flag of the United States Max Clark

Flag of the United States Omer Manley

Flag of the United States Frederick A. Daugherty

Flag of the Philippines Fidel V. Ramos

Flag of the Philippines Felizardo Tanabe

Flag of the Philippines Salvador Abcede

Flag of the Philippines Jose Palis

Flag of the Philippines Cipriano Drapeza

Flag of the Philippines Ramon Z. Aquirre

Flag of the Philippines Armando Dizon

The Battle of Hill Eerie refers to several Korean War engagements between the United Nations forces and the Chinese Communist Forces (CCF) in 1952 at the infamous of Hill Eerie.

Hill Eerie is a military outpost at 38°15′12″N 127°3′8″E / 38.25333°N 127.05222°E / 38.25333; 127.05222, about ten miles west of the rubble piles of Ch'orwon. It was taken several times either by the U.N. forces or by the Chinese forces, sabotaging each others' position.


[edit] March 1952

In March 1952, Hill Eerie was under the responsibility of the United States Army's 45th Infantry Division - Company K, 179th Infantry, commanded by Captain Max Clark.

On March 21, 1952, the twenty-six personnel of the third platoon, under the command of Lieutenant Omer Manley, set out to take over the outpost. Manley's men were made up two rifle squads, a light-machine-gun squad and a 60-mm mortar squad.

Later, Manley sent two patrol squads to establish an ambush site around the hill. By night, both patrol squads sighted enemy activities. At 23:30, the Chinese attack took place and a machine gun duel between the two groups ended after Captain Clark's troops at Hill 418 supported his men at the Eerie outpost with supporting machine-gun and mortar concentrations.

The battle continued in the morning of March 22 with the Chinese forces penetrating the outpost's defenders and eventually overran Manley's men. Clark then ordered to concentrate the artillery fire to the Outpost Eerie after losing communication. At 01:30, Regimental Commander, Colonel Frederick A. Daugherty, ordered Clark to advance toward the hill and retook the position in Hill Eerie.

Clark's men searched the area and found out that, of the 26 men who had defended Outpost Eerie, 8 were dead, 4 wounded, and 2 were missing in action (Lieutenant Manley and Corporal Joel Ybarra). They also recovered 31 dead bodies of the enemy around the hill and captured a wounded Chinese. Later, Clark withdrew his troops to the main line of resistance.

[edit] May 1952

Lieutenant Fidel Ramos (future President of the Philippines) was the platoon leader of the team that captured Hill Eerie

In May 1952, the 20th Philippine Battalion Combat Team, under the command of Colonel Salvador Abcede, engaged several combat actions against the Chinese forces at the town of Karhwagol, west of Chorwon and was already involved in major battles and assaults against the Chinese forces.

There were numerous closely fought battles at the Hills Eerie, as well as on Hills 18, 200, and 19, Yoke, Uncle, Old Baldy, all in the T-Bone Hill but later the 20th were committed at the Pork Chop Hill and in Alligator Jaws.

On the other hand, Hill Eerie was a military outpost that had changed hands many times and was a heavily fortified Chinese position with a commanding view of the plains below.

A series of raids were launched by the Filipinos, from May 18, led by Lieutenant Rodolfo Maestro killing 28 CCF and by the next day, killing 23 before disengaging with the enemy while tanks and artillery continue the bombardments against the outpost.

On May 21, 1952, Colonel Abcede ordered Major Felizardo Tanabe, the battalion's operation officer, to prepare the final assault of the Chinese position after several attempts to captured the outpost. In turn, Tanabe sent the 44-man 2nd reconnaissance platoon to sabotage the outpost.

The platoon was led by a young Filipino officer, a 1950 graduate of West Point's United States Military Academy, 2nd Lieutenant Fidel V. Ramos (future President of the Philippines).

Ramos divided the assault team into four groups of snipers, riflemen, scouts and forward observers, with a radio operator, a messenger and a medic. The platoon was reinforced by some engineer demolition specialists and an artillery observer team. They left at 04:07.

The Filipino platoon crawled through rice paddies and scattered trees for two hours before it reach an irrigation ditch, about 400 meters from the top of the hill. Intelligence estimated the enemy strength to be one reinforced platoon of the Chinese Red Army.

Then, the United States Air Force sent seven F-86 Sabre jet fighters to pound the enemy positions with napalm bombs with ground support from artillery fire. After the bombardments, Ramos' men seized the front part of the trench after discovering a hole in the blasted stack of barbed wire.

Close-quarter fighting raged as the retreating enemy fought back but the advancing Filipinos were gaining the upper hand. The scout team, led by Corporal Jose Palis, went into action at the right of the hill and was later joined by Lieutenant Ramos. Meanwhile, the rifle team, led by Sergeant Cipriano Drapeza, worked its way at the left side of the hill while the sniper team, led by Second Lieutenant Armando Dizon, held the enemy's support from the nearby Hill 191.

By 07:28, the Filipinos demolished the Chinese bunkers and withdrew from the top of the hill while friendly tanks resumed bombardment of Hill Eerie.

The assault lasted for two hours, and Ramos' men suffered one injury while the Chinese had 11 dead, 10 wounded and the supporting artillery, tanks and air strikes could not be determined. The battle was the final assault of Hill Eerie by the United Nations forces.

The Filipino battalion was replaced by the 2nd Battalion of the 179th United States Infantry.

[edit] June 1952

On June 16, 1952, the 19th Philippine Battalion Combat Team, under the command of Colonel Ramon Z. Aquirre, relieved the American battalion in the T-Bone ridge sector.

By June 18, the Chinese forces sought to recapture the area and launched an intensive artillery and mortar bombardments. The Filipinos held their ground and were able to repulse Chinese attack.

On June 20, the Chinese forces launched another attack towards Hill Eerie and the rest of the T-Bone ridge area. At dawn, Chinese penetrated; that lead to hand-to-hand fighting but the Filipino troops were able to win the duel.

By the morning, artillery battle continue until the allied forces successfully defended Hills Eerie and 191. The result of the battle were estimated 500 enemy casualties while the Filipinos had 24.

The Filipino battalion was later relieved by the 2nd Infantry Division (United States) on July 18, 1952.

[edit] References

[edit] See also

Tuesday, February 24, 2009

Multiunit auction

A multiunit auction is an auction in which several items are sold. The units can be sold each at the same price (a uniform price auction) or at different prices(a discriminatory price auction).

Monday, February 23, 2009


Scientific classification


Whitley, 1939


See text.

Pavoraja is a genus of skates in the family Rajidae. These skates are known as peacock skates.

[edit] Species

[edit] References

Red-handed Howler

Red-handed Howler
Conservation status

Scientific classification

Species:A. belzebul

Binomial name
Alouatta belzebul

(Linnaeus, 1766)

The Red-handed Howler (Alouatta belzebul) is a species of howler monkey, a type of New World monkey, endemic to Brazil. This monkey is usually entirely black, but in some regions females can have red feet and tail tip.

[edit] References

  1. ^ Veiga, L. M., Kierulff, C. & de Oliveira, M. M. (2008). Alouatta belzebul. 2008 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2008. Retrieved on 3 January 2009.