Thursday, January 1, 2009

Sriranga Deva Raya

Vijayanagara Empire

Sangama Dynasty
Harihara Raya I1336-1356
Bukka Raya I1356-1377
Harihara Raya II1377-1404
Virupaksha Raya1404-1405
Bukka Raya II1405-1406
Deva Raya I1406-1422
Ramachandra Raya1422
Vira Vijaya Bukka Raya1422-1424
Deva Raya II1424-1446
Mallikarjuna Raya1446-1465
Virupaksha Raya II1465-1485
Praudha Raya1485
Saluva Dynasty
Saluva Narasimha Deva Raya1485-1491
Thimma Bhupala1491
Narasimha Raya II1491-1505
Tuluva Dynasty
Tuluva Narasa Nayaka1491-1503
Viranarasimha Raya1503-1509
Krishna Deva Raya1509-1529
Achyuta Deva Raya1529-1542
Sadashiva Raya1542-1570
Aravidu Dynasty
Aliya Rama Raya1542-1565
Tirumala Deva Raya1565-1572
Sriranga I1572-1586
Venkata II1586-1614
Sriranga II1614-1614
Venkata III1632-1642
Sriranga III1642-1646

Sriranga I (a.k.a Sriranga Deva Raya) (1572-1586 CE) was the king of Vijayanagara empire, from 1572-1586. He carried the restoration of the Vijayanagara empire, but his reign was marred with repeated attacks and loss of territories from his Muslim neighbours.

In 1576, Ali Adil Shah lay siege to his fort in Penukonda for three months, but at the end Sriranga I bought out the Adil Shah’s Hindu lieutenants which helped his commanders defeat the Sultan’s army.

In 1579, Sultan’s new commander Murari Rao, a Maratha Brahmin, launched a sudden plundering operation heading a large Muslim army. His hordes began systematically ravaging the territory south of the River Krishna with great ferocity. In late 1579, he ransacked the Ahobilam temple and laid waste to it. He uprooted an ancient ruby-studded idol of Vishnu made out of pure gold and sent it to the Sultan as gift.

Chennappa Nayaka , a general of Recherla Velama dynasty was sent to defeat the Golkonda raiders but the magnitude of Atorcities commited by the invaders alerted Sriranga I who also hurried to parry the attack. Murari Rao and his Golkonda raiders were defeated , Murari Rao was pursued by Chennappa who captured and imprisoned him in a cage. By 1580, Sriranga I turned the tide and started chasing the Golkonda army northwards recovering the territory they had seized. Sriranga I generously spared the life of Murari Rao because of his brahminical origins.

Ibrahim Qutb Shah, the new Sultan was furious and decided to settle the matters himself and invaded Kondavidu with the rest of his army and took the Udayagiri fort. Then he launched a massive raid on Udayagiri and slaughtered the locals, but Sriranga I kept the fight on and repulsed Sultan’s army from Udayagiri after an initial retreat. Unfazed, Qutb Shah struck at Vinukonda and seized the fort. Sriranga I, along with Chennappa and Kasturiranga , rushed to Vinukonda and after a fierce battle the Sultan’s army was defeated and sent back. Later, Sriranga I’s troops, under Chennappa, stormed the fort of Kondavidu while the later died fighting even as he forced the Sultans army to retreat.

Despite the loss of territories, which was higher this time, Sriranga I also had a difficult time with his uncooperative brothers and noble men and continued to resist with limited resources as the Nayaks of Madurai and Gingee evaded on paying annual tributes.

Sriranga I died in 1586, without an heir and was succeeded by his youngest brother Venkatapathi Raya (Venkata II).

[edit] References

  • Rao, Velcheru Narayana, and David Shulman, Sanjay Subrahmanyam. Symbols of substance : court and state in Nayaka period Tamilnadu (Delhi ; Oxford : Oxford University Press, 1998) ; xix, 349 p., [16] p. of plates : ill., maps ; 22 cm. ; Oxford India paperbacks ; Includes bibliographical references and index ; ISBN 0-19-564399-2.

  • Sathianathaier, R. History of the Nayaks of Madura [microform] by R. Sathyanatha Aiyar ; edited for the University, with introduction and notes by S. Krishnaswami Aiyangar ([Madras] : Oxford University Press, 1924) ; see also ([London] : H. Milford, Oxford university press, 1924) ; xvi, 403 p. ; 21 cm. ; SAMP early 20th-century Indian books project item 10819.

  • K.A. Nilakanta Sastry, History of South India, From Prehistoric times to fall of Vijayanagar, 1955, OUP, (Reprinted 2002) ISBN 019560686-8.

Preceded by

Tirumala Deva Raya
Vijayanagar empire

1572 –1586
Succeeded by

Venkata II

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