Saturday, January 31, 2009

M5 highway (Russia)


























M5


Ural Highway
Length:1879 KM
West end:Moscow
East end:Chelyabinsk

The Russian route M5 (also known as the Ural Highway) is a major trunk road running across a distance of 1879 km from Moscow to the Ural Mountains. It is part of the European route E30 and the Trans-Siberian Highway.


The highway starts at the crossing of the Moscow Ring Road and Volgogradsky Prospekt and runs southeast through Lyubertsy, crossing the Oka River at Kolomna. The Ural Highway continues across nine regions of Russia, passing through a dangerous mountain stretch before terminating at Chelyabinsk. The road continues from Chelyabinsk further east to Omsk, Novosibirsk, Irkutsk as the Russian route M51.



[edit] Route



0 km Moscow

23 km Chulkovo

44 km Bronnitsy

70 km Stepanshchino

93 km Kolomna

116 km Lukhovitsy

Ryazan Oblast

181 km Ryazan

302 km Putyatino

345 km Shatsk

Mordvinia

440 km Zubova Polyana

Penza Oblast

472 km Spassk

525 km Nizhny Lomov

593 km Mokshan

634 km Penza

706 km Chaadayevka

745 km Kuznetsk

761 km Yevlashchevo

Ulyanovsk Oblast

822 km Novospasskoye

Samara Oblast

887 km Syzran

930 km Mezhdurechensk

Bridge across the Volga

972 km Tolyatti

1032 km Crossing M32 near Samara

1043 km Krasny Yar

1115 km Sukhodol

1178 km Staraya Balykla

Orenburg Oblast

1204 km Severnoye

Tatarstan

1271 Bavly

Bashkortostan

1285 Oktyabrsky, Bashkortostan

1324 Serafimovsky

1392 Kob-Pokrovka

1459 Ufa

Chelyabinsk Oblast

1625 Yuryuzan

1759 Miass

1777 Chebarkul

1855 Chelyabinsk, M36, M51













Tampa Bay Terror

The Tampa Bay Terror were an indoor soccer team based in Tampa Bay, Florida that competed in the defunct National Professional Soccer League (NPSL). The team existed for two seasons before folding: 1995-1996 and 1996-1997. The team's home games were held at the Bayfront Center.



[edit] Year-by-year record
























YearRecordRegular SeasonPlayoffsOpen Cup
1995-199614-266th American DivisionDid not qualifyDid not enter
1996-199715-254th East DivisionFirst RoundDid not enter


[edit] Head coach










Friday, January 30, 2009

River Parrett Trail
























River Parrett Trail
View toward Burrow Hill from the River Parrett Trail on a misty morning

View toward Burrow Hill from the River Parrett Trail on a misty morning

Length47 miles (76 km)
LocationDorset & Somerset
TrailheadsChedington/Bridgwater Bay
UseHiking

The River Parrett Trail is a long-distance footpath, following the route of the River Parrett in Somerset, England. The trail, which is 47 miles (76 km) long, runs from Chedington in Dorset to the mouth of the river in Bridgwater Bay.


It passes many landmarks and places of interest including; Burrow Hill Cider Farm, Muchelney Abbey, West Sedgemoor (a Site of Special Scientific Interest(SSSI), the Blake Museum, Westonzoyland Pumping Station Museum, the site of the Battle of Sedgemoor and finally discharging into Bridgwater Bay (another SSSI).


The trail is managed by The Parrett Trail Partnership, a consortium of agencies including:[1] Arts Council England, South West, British Waterways, Cannington Agricultural College, Country Land and Business Association, Natural England, Environment Agency, National Farmers Union, Royal Society for the Protection of Birds, Sedgemoor District Council, Somerset County Council, Somerset Wildlife Trust, South Somerset District Council, South West Tourism, Take Art!, Taunton Deane Borough Council and West Dorset District Council.














[edit] References




  1. ^ "The Parrett Trail Partnership". The Parret Trail Partnership. Retrieved on 2008-08-29.




[edit] External links










22 nanometer








CMOS manufacturing

processes



The 22 nanometer (22 nm) node is the CMOS process step following 32 nm. It is expected to be reached by semiconductor companies in the 2011–2012 timeframe. At that time, the typical half-pitch for a memory cell would be around 22 nm. The exact naming of this technology node comes from the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS).


The ITRS 2006 Front End Process Update indicates that equivalent physical oxide thickness will not scale below 0.5 nm which is the expected value at the 22 nm node. This is an indication that CMOS scaling in this area has reached a wall at this point.


Since the 32 nm half-pitch already requires using double patterning, in conjunction with hyper-NA (numerical aperture) immersion lithography tools, this approach will continue to be used at the 22 nm half-pitch, to which it can be scaled.[1]


Some predictions for the 22 nm node come from the ITRS. For example, it is predicted that silicon devices will no longer be planar, but will require ultrathin sections mostly surrounded on the sides by gates. The silicon body in each section is fully depleted, i.e., the free charge carrier concentration is deliberately suppressed. The sections basically protrude as fins from the surface (sometimes these are known as FinFETs). The creation of fins is a new challenge for the semiconductor industry, which has become accustomed to building transistors on a flat silicon surface. As of late 2008, several technical risks remain for implementation of non-planar 22nm transistors for logic applications.[2]


According to the ITRS, the 22 nm node also marks the first time where the pre-metal dielectric, separating the transistor from the first metal layer, is a porous low-k material, replacing traditional, denser CVD silicon dioxide. The introduction of a porous material closer to the front end presents numerous integration challenges. In particular, the extent of plasma damage to low-k materials is typically 20 nm thick,[3] but can also go up to approximately 100 nm.[4]


The successor to 22 nm technology will be 16 nm technology per ITRS.



[edit] Technology Demos


On August 18, 2008, AMD, Freescale, IBM, STMicroelectronics, Toshiba and the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE) announced that they jointly developed and manufactured a 22 nm SRAM cell, built on a traditional six-transistor design on a 300 mm wafer, which had a memory cell size of just 0.1 square μm.[5] The cell was printed using immersion lithography.[6]



[edit] References




  1. ^ EEtimes article on 22 nm

  2. ^ http://www.semiconductor.net/article/CA6622435.html

  3. ^ O. Richard et al., Microelectronic Engineering 84, pp. 517-523 (2007).

  4. ^ T. Gross et al., Microelectronic Engineering 85, pp. 401-407 (2008).

  5. ^ TG Daily news report

  6. ^ EETimes news report




[edit] External links











Preceded by

32 nm
CMOS manufacturing processesSucceeded by

16 nm








Thursday, January 29, 2009

Israel ben Moses Najara

Israel ben Moses Najara (c. 1555, Damascus - c. 1625, Gaza) (Heb. ישראל בן משה נאג'ארה) was a Jewish liturgical poet, preacher, Biblical commentator, kabbalist, and rabbi of Gaza.








Contents







[edit] Biography


According to Franco (Histoire des Israélites de l'Empire Ottoman, p. 79, Paris, 1897), there is another account which declares that Najara was born about 1530 and that he lived for some years at Adrianople. From his secular poems, which he wrote in the meters of various Turkish, Spanish, and modern Greek songs, it is evident that he knew well several foreign languages. He travelled extensively in the Near East, had lived in Safed, where he came under the extensive influence of Lurianic Kabbalah and served as a rabbi at the Jewish community of Gaza.


As may be seen from his works, he was a versatile scholar, and he corresponded with many contemporary rabbis, among others with Bezaleel Ashkenazi, Yom-Ṭob Ẓahalon, Moses Hamon, and Menahem Ḥefeẓ. His poetic effusions were exceptionally numerous, and many of them were translated into Persian. While still young he composed many religious hymns, to Arabic and Turkish tunes, with the intention, as he says in the preface to his Zemirot Yisrael, of turning the Jewish youth from profane songs. He wrote piyyuṭim, pizmonim, seliḥot, widduyim, and dirges for all the week-days and for Sabbaths, holy days, and occasional ceremonies, these piyyuṭim being collected in his Zemirot Yisrael. Many of the piyyuṭim are in Aramaic.


For his hymns on the marriage of God and Israel, Najara was severely blamed by Menahem Lonzano (Shete Yadot, p. 142) when the latter was at Damascus. The Shibḥe Ḥayyim Wiṭal (p. 7b) contains a violent attack by Ḥayyim Vital upon a poet whose name is not mentioned, but who is supposed to be Israel Najara. Nevertheless, Isaac Luria, Vital's teacher, declared that Najara's hymns were listened to with delight in heaven. His piyyuṭim were praised also by Leon of Modena, who composed a song in his honor, which was printed at the beginning of the Olat Shabbat, the second part of the Zemirot Yisrael.


He is buried in the ancient Jewish cemetery in Gaza. His son, Moses Najara was also a poet, who succeeded his father as the chief rabbi of Gaza.



[edit] Works


Najara's letters, secular poems, epigrams, and rimed prose form the work entitled Meme Yisrael (published at the end of the second edition of the Zemirot Yisrael). Najara's other works are as follows:



  • Mesaḥeḳet ha-Tebel (Safed, 1587), an ethical poem on the nothingness of the world

  • Shoḥaṭe ha-Yeladim (printed with Moses Ventura's Yemin Mosheh, Amsterdam, 1718), Hebrew verse on the laws of slaughtering and porging, composed at the request of his son Moses

  • Ketubbat Yisrael (with Joseph Jaabez's Ma'amar ha-Aḥdut, n.p., 1794), a hymn which, in the kabalistic fashion, represents the relationship between God and Israel as one between man and wife (it was composed for the Feast of Pentecost)

  • A collection of hymns published by M. H. Friedländer (Vienna, 1858) under the title Pizmonim.


His unpublished works are



  • She'eret Yisrael, poems (see below)

  • Ma'arkot Yisrael, a commentary on the Pentateuch

  • Miḳweh Yisrael, sermons

  • Piẓ'e Oheb, a commentary on Job.



[edit] Zemirot Yisrael


The Zemirot Yisrael, originally entitled Zemirot Yisrael Najara, was first published at Safed (1587) and contained 108 piyyuṭim and hymns. Many additional songs were printed in the second edition (Venice, 1599). This edition contains also the Meme Yisrael and the Mesaḥeḳet ha-Tebel, and is divided into three parts:



  1. Olot Tamid, containing 225 piyyuṭim for the week-days

  2. Olot Shabbot, containing 54 piyyuṭim for the Sabbaths of the whole year

  3. Olot Ḥodesh, containing 160 piyyuṭim and dirges for the high holy days, Purim, the Ninth of Ab, and occasional ceremonies. It was published a third time at Belgrade (1837), but with the omission of many songs and of the two works just mentioned. Extracts from the Zemirot Yisrael were published under the title of Tefillot Nora'ot (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1712).


Many of Najara's piyyuṭim and hymns have been taken into the rituals and maḥzorim in use among the Jews in different countries, especially in Italy and Palestine. Benjamin II (Mas'e Yisra'el, p. 15) states that the Jews of Aleppo sing on Sabbath eve many beautiful hymns and recite many prayers, most of which are by Najara. The best known of his Aramaic hymns is the one beginning Yah Ribbon 'Olam, recited on Sabbath by the Jews of all countries and printed in all the rituals. The She'erit Yisra'el contains sixty poems and is, according to its heading, the second part of the Zemirot Yisrael; it is found in the bet ha-midrash of the German community in Amsterdam. From it Dukes published one poem in Orient, Lit. (iv. 526; comp. 540). M. Sachs attempted to render some of Najara's piyyuṭim into German (Busch, Jahrbücher, 1847, pp. 236-238). After the ruins of the house inhabited by R. Judah he-Ḥasid at Jerusalem were cleared away in 1836, some writings of Israel Najara of the year 1579 were found; these writings are now (as of 1906) preserved in the archives of the synagogue of Jerusalem.



[edit] Jewish Encyclopedia bibliography




[edit] References




[edit] External links









Windows (disambiguation)





Look up Windows, windows in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.


Windows is the plural form of window.


It may also refer to:



[edit] Computing



Windowing systems:



  • Microsoft Windows, a family of windows-based operating systems and windowing systems

  • X Window System, the system used by most Unix-like operating systems and OpenVMS

  • OpenWindows, the X Window System implementation for Solaris from 1989 to 2002

  • DECwindows, the X Window System implementation used by Digital Equipment Corporation



[edit] Arts and Entertainment















Wednesday, January 28, 2009

Villavicencio


















































Villavicencio

Villavicencio skyline

Villavicencio skyline





Flag of Villavicencio

Flag


Location map of the municipality and city of Villavicencio in the Department of Meta.

Location map of the municipality and city of Villavicencio in the Department of Meta.
RegionOrinoquía
DepartmentDepartment of Meta
Government
 - MayorHéctor Raúl Franco Roa
Area
 - Total1,328 km2 (512.7 sq mi)
Elevation467 m (1,532 ft)
Population
 - Total384,131
Website: http://www.alcaldiadevillavicencio.gov.co/

Villavicencio is a city and municipality in Colombia, capital of the Department of Meta, with 361,058 inhabitants. (2005 census) The city is located at 4°08N, 73°40W, 75 km (about 45 m) southeast of the Colombian capital city of Bogotá (DC) by the Guatiquía river. It is also known colloquially as "Villavo".


Lying in a rural zone of tropical climate, Villavicencio is on the great Colombian-Venezuelan plain called Los Llanos, which is situated to the east of the Andes mountains. Villavicencio is also called "La Puerta al Llano," or "The Gate to the Llanos," due to its location on the historical path from the Colombian interior to the vast savannas that lie between the Andes range and the Amazon rainforest.


Villavicencio's proximity to huge mountains and great plains make the city an example of Colombia's geodiversity. Because it is located in the foothills of the Andes, the morning and evening breezes cool the city that is very hot for most of the day.








Contents







[edit] History


The German Conquistador Nikolaus Federmann reached the altiplano of Bogotá by approaching it from the plains of Venezuela, a large unsettled area that is formed by the Orinoco basin, in 1536. However, this vast area, remained unexplored and uncolonized for the next 300 years. Colombia was settled along the mountainous folds of the Magdalena and Cauca valleys, and all of its commerce with the outside world was oriented towards the Caribbean sea, thus, because of its geographical barriers, the extreme heat, and inhospitable climate, the "Llanos" remained forgotten and unsettled.


In the 1840s, some farmers from Caqueza, a town on the eastern folds of Bogotá started the modern settlement of Gramalote, which officially became the parish of Villavicencio in 1855. Antonio Villavicencio was a patriot in the Colombian war of independence.


The llaneros, the inhabitants of the plains, were fierce horsemen who first fought for the Spanish royalists and then for the Venezuelan and Colombian rebels during the war of Independence. By crossing the Andes mountains with Bolivar, they surprised the Spaniards on the plateau of Tunja and cleared the way for the taking of Santa Fe de Bogotá in August 1819. Vaccines, a mule road, and the availability of vast areas of free land, drove new colonizers to continue the settlement of Villavicencio. As the roads improved the access to the Llanos, the farmers could send their produce and cattle to the markets of Bogotá.


After the assassination of Jorge Eliecer Gaitan, a popular Liberal politician in 1948, the large landowners saw a pretext to drive farmers out of their lands. The llaneros resisted by driving the army out of its populated centers. The guerrillas never took Villavicencio, but they brought the fighting to the military base of Apiay. As the fighting between the government and the llanero guerrillas was out of control, a military coup in June 1953, took Gustavo Rojas Pinilla to power who immediately negotiated a cease fire and amnesty for the insurgents.



[edit] 1960s-present


Since the 1960s and with the development of the Colombian Civil War, thousands of people have been displaced from their land and have come to Villavicencio from all over Colombia seeking refuge and protection from guerrillas, right wing paramilitary groups, and even the Colombian military. The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees tried to bring minimal assistance to these displaced people.


Villavicencio has grown from a small settlement of hardly 20 people in the 1850s to an uncontrolled and disparate city of over 350,000 inhabitants in 2007. It is a vast modern city which has grown out of control. It does not have clean water for all of its inhabitants, its sanitary system does not exist in poor neighborhoods, and even its electrical grid is not sufficient to meet the needs of the city.


A modern road has shortened the driving time to Bogotá to one and half hours.



[edit] Geography and Climate


The climate is hot and very humid due to its proximity to the footsteps of the Eastern Ranges of the Andes. Average temperatures is 27 degrees Celsius.


The city is located in the Orinoquia Region, where the Eastern Plains begin. Most of the city's urban layout lays in a flat terrain. The Guaitiquia River borders the city to the north.



[edit] Economy


Cattle, agriculture, and the exportation of crude oil fuel the Villavicencio economy. Beer and soap are manufactured in Villavicencio. Imports from the surrounding area include coffee, bananas, and rice.



[edit] Sports


The city has a football (soccer) team, the Centauros Villavicencio which plays in Colombia's second division.



[edit] External links



Coordinates: 4°09′N 73°38′W / 4.15, -73.633













Trip Dancer















































“Trip Dancer”
Single by The Pillows

from the album Please Mr. Lostman
ReleasedNovember 21, 1996
FormatCD
GenreAlternative rock
Length7:54
LabelKing Records

KIDS-307
ProducerZin Yoshida
The Pillows singles chronology







"Swanky Street"

(1996)
"Trip Dancer"

(1996)
"Kanojo wa Kyou"

(1997)


"Trip Dancer" is a song and single by The Pillows. It was used as ending music for NHK-FM's "music square" The song Trip Dancer was featured in their 1997 album Please Mr. Lostman.



[edit] Track listing



  1. "Trip Dancer"

  2. "Lesser Hamster no Yuu-utsu"